Acne vulgaris

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Acne vulgaris is a "chronic disorder of the pilosebaceous apparatus associated with an increase in sebum secretion. It is characterized by open comedones (blackheads), closed comedones (whiteheads), and pustular nodules. The cause is unknown, but heredity and age are predisposing factors."[1][2][3][4]


The pathology underlying acne is:[4]

Twin studies suggest a genetic predisposition to developing acne.[5][6]


  • Noninflammatory
  • Inflammatory


Clinical practice guidelines[7] and systematic reviews[8][9] address the treatment of acne.


  1. Anonymous (2023), Acne vulgaris (English). Medical Subject Headings. U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  2. James WD (April 2005). "Clinical practice. Acne". N. Engl. J. Med. 352 (14): 1463–72. DOI:10.1056/NEJMcp033487. PMID 15814882. Research Blogging.
  3. Purdy S, de Berker D (November 2006). "Acne". BMJ 333 (7575): 949–53. DOI:10.1136/bmj.38987.606701.80. PMID 17082546. PMC 1633755. Research Blogging.
  4. 4.0 4.1 In the Clinic. (2008) Acne Ann Intern Med 149(1):ITC1-1.
  5. Evans DM, Kirk KM, Nyholt DR, Novac C, Martin NG (March 2005). "Teenage acne is influenced by genetic factors". Br. J. Dermatol. 152 (3): 579–81. DOI:10.1111/j.1365-2133.2005.06387.x. PMID 15787839. Research Blogging.
  6. Bataille V, Snieder H, MacGregor AJ, Sasieni P, Spector TD (December 2002). "The influence of genetics and environmental factors in the pathogenesis of acne: a twin study of acne in women". J. Invest. Dermatol. 119 (6): 1317–22. DOI:10.1046/j.1523-1747.2002.19621.x. PMID 12485434. Research Blogging.
  7. Strauss JS, Krowchuk DP, Leyden JJ, et al (April 2007). "Guidelines of care for acne vulgaris management". J. Am. Acad. Dermatol. 56 (4): 651–63. DOI:10.1016/j.jaad.2006.08.048. PMID 17276540. Research Blogging. Complete summary at the National Guidelines Clearinghouse
  8. Haider A, Shaw JC (August 2004). "Treatment of acne vulgaris". JAMA 292 (6): 726–35. DOI:10.1001/jama.292.6.726. PMID 15304471. Research Blogging.
  9. Purdy S (June 2006). "Acne vulgaris". Clin Evid (15): 2183–201. PMID 16973084[e]

External links

Acne vulgaris - Information for patients from MedlinePlus (United States National Library of Medicine).