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Much of the Iberian peninsula was once ruled by muslims, and was home to Arabic speakers, from 711 to 1492.
This animated map shows the southward growth of Christian rule, and the displacement of Arabic speakers, and of Mozarabic speakers (a Romance language, influenced by Arabic), as muslims were driven out of the Iberian peninsula by intolerant Christian rulers.

Andalusia (Muslim Iberia) was the Arabic name for the portion of the Iberian peninsula governed by muslims and home to Arabic speakers.