Timeline for Commons theory of voluntary action
A sequence of significant events in the evolution of the concept of commons and its application to voluntary action, nonprofit organization and philanthropy.
1876: Henry Sumner Maine's "Village Communities in East and West" is published in New York.
- Maine indicates the existence of village-based common field agriculture across Europe and Asia from England to Japan.
1887: Thomas E. Scrutton's book, "Commons and Common Fields" is published in London.
1894: Eversley Shaw-Lefevre's English Commons and Forests is published in London.
1965: Garrett Hardin's essay "The Tragedy of the Commons" is published in Science.
1977: Eleanor & Vincent Ostrom's 2 x 2 table bursting the public/private dichotomy into four types of goods including "common goods" is published.
1990: Governing the Commons, by Elinor Ostrom is published.
1987: Roger Lohmann's essay"And Lettuce Is Nonanimal" is presented at the Association of Voluntary Action Scholars conference.
1992: Roger Lohmann's journal article "And Lettuce Is Nonanimal" is published in Nonprofit and Voluntary Sector Quarterly.
2007: Knowledge Commons, edited by Charlotte Hess and Elinor Ostrom is published.
2015: Roger Lohmann's Voluntary Action in New Commons: Democracy in the Life World Beyond Market, State and Household is published.