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Ritual encompasses a wide range of human activities, including but not limited to religion, citizenship, obedience and personal development. Victor Turner, an influential contributor to the anthropological study of symbols and the structure of rituals, provided a religiously oriented definition: "prescribed formal behavior for occasions not given over to technological routine, having reference to beliefs in mystical beings or powers." [1]


  1. Victor Turner. 1967. The Forest of Symbols: Aspects of Ndembu Ritual. Ithaca: Cornell University Press., P. 19